An ancient city destroyed by fire due to a meteorite

About 3,600 years ago, an ancient city in what is now the Middle East was destroyed by a sudden disaster. Archaeologists have not been able to figure out how the city of Tol al-Hammam (as it is today) was destroyed overnight, which was located in modern-day Jordan. But archaeologists who have been studying the remains of this ruined city for the past 15 years have declared that the city was destroyed by a meteorite.

The scholars involved in this research group are not only archaeologists. In this group, along with archaeologists, geologists, Geochemists, Ancient botanists, and other scholars,

To find out why this city, which is only 15 miles away from the Dead Sea, was destroyed, the experts dug up to a depth of 5 feet. When you look at this excavation, you will find that it has been badly damaged by fire. According to the preliminary findings, it was determined that the destruction of the city was caused by a severe fire, but they could not guess what kind of fire.

Because of the meteorite?
After a detailed analysis of these soil samples, scientists have found the answer they were looking for. After ruling out other natural and man-made disasters, scientists finally concluded that the city was destroyed by a meteorite that fell from the sky. According to their study, other causes would not have caused such extensive damage.

Scientists think that the event of this city being destroyed by fire could be the basis for the story of a city destroyed by fire in one of the stories of ancient world history.

“The extraordinary incident of the destruction of the city of Tol al-Hammam by fire falling from the sky has been told as an oral history for generations. From these oral histories, it cannot be said that the Bible did not become the history of the city of Sodom, which was destroyed by fire,” these scholars wrote in the opening of their paper. The paper was presented in this month’s issue of the research journal Scientific Reports.

“The biblical description of a populous city near the Dead Sea being destroyed by fire from heaven is almost identical to what was written by those who witnessed the devastation caused when a meteor exploded in the atmosphere,” they continued. “Stones will fall from the sky; The lights of the sky will fall; The fire will burn; and the smoke will come out. Because of this, a densely populated and important city will be completely destroyed. Most of the urban population must die. All crops and plants will be destroyed by fire,” they continued.

Fire from the sky
According to scientists’ calculations, this meteorite is believed to be about 200 feet in diameter. When it entered the Earth’s atmosphere, it was traveling at 38,000 miles per hour. Without directly hitting the Earth, it exploded 2.5 miles (4 km) above the Earth’s surface. The force produced by this explosion is 1,000 times stronger than the atomic bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima.

It is estimated that the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere will suddenly rise to about 2,000 degrees Celsius due to the initial explosion. Everything that was flammable in the city below him was immediately ignited by this intense heat. The temperature is so intense that metals, Even bricks and pottery, melt.

A few seconds later, the shock wave caused by the explosion hit the city. Due to this wave, strong winds of up to 740 miles per hour fell, and all the buildings in the city were flattened. More than 8,000 people living in the city are expected to die within seconds.

According to scientists, the shock wave from this explosion was so strong that even some of the water in the nearby Dead Sea flew into the atmosphere as water droplets. These saltwater droplets spread around and fall back to the ground within a few hours. In the areas where this salt water spreads, the agricultural lands become salty, and nothing can be cultivated. Therefore, experts estimate that people will not resettle in this area for another 600 years.

What evidence is there that the city was destroyed by a meteorite?

Normally, scientists first look for a large amount of evidence to come up with a theory. Then a theory can be developed to explain the evidence obtained.

The scientists who studied the ruins of Tol al-Hammam used the opposite method to develop this theory. This means that they first came up with the theory that the city was destroyed by a “meteorite” and then collected evidence that would support their meteorite theory in this area.

Despite this routine approach, the researchers explored all other possibilities before coming up with their meteorite theory. Looking at the amount of damage caused by this city, they considered that it was not damaged by common natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions.

The researchers used an online tool called the Online Impact Calculator to study more deeply the idea that the city was destroyed by what they thought was an object from space.

This Online Impact Calculator was written by scientists from Imperial College of London and Purdue University in the United Kingdom. Using this program, you can calculate the impact of meteors and comets entering the Earth’s atmosphere.

The damage seen at Tall Al Hammam is consistent with the damage caused by meteorites that explode in mid-air.

This theory is natural in terms of mathematics and calculations, but to show that it is actually true, it is necessary to examine the ground in detail and find evidence. Therefore, in order to find evidence, scientists conducted detailed excavations of this ruined city and collected soil and rock samples for analysis.

They find that what they discover on the ground is consistent with their theory. When we put together the facts, we can see that this ancient city was destroyed by a huge explosion with high temperatures and pressure.


Burnt and melted clay pots and clay bricks were found. These pottery and clay bricks were subjected to extreme temperatures of up to 1,500 degrees Celsius.

Shocked quartz is also found. This crystal is a rock that has changed from sand under intense pressure. Even 51,000 kg of pressure is required for one centimeter of stone to form.

Diamonds are called Diamondoids. These diamond hammers are not formed underground like real diamonds but are vaporized from pieces of wood under extreme pressure and temperature.

Small particles called spherules are formed by the evaporation of iron and sand. A temperature of at least 15.90 degrees Celsius is required for this combination.

The melted pottery and clay bricks were combined with small pieces of metal to form small stones. These metals require a temperature of about 1,600 degrees Celsius to melt.

Even normal fire and hot lava from a volcano cannot generate such extreme temperatures and pressures. Since an atomic explosion was not possible at that time, the only possibility that remains is a meteorite explosion in the sky.

About 12,800 years ago, a similar meteorite hit the Earth. This meteorite fell on the village of Abu Hureyra, an ancient village in Syria. The entire village was destroyed by this meteorite.

Two years ago, a giant 6-mile-diameter, 66-million-pound meteorite hit the United States. Because of this big meteorite, the world’s climate changed again, and the dinosaurs still had to breed.

Scientists have not been able to predict when such a large meteorite will strike again.